True and Fair presentation Definition
Financial statements are produced by the Board of directors which give a true and fair view of the entity’s results. The auditor in reviewing these financial statements gives an opinion on the truth and fairness of them. Although there is no definition in the International Standards on Auditing of true and fair it is generally considered the meaning of
True and Fair presentation as following
True – Information is based on facts and conforms with reality in that there are no factual errors. In addition, it is assumed that to be true it must comply with accounting standards and any relevant legislation. True includes data that is correctly transferred from accounting records to the financial statements.
Fair – Information is impartial, clear and unbiased, and representing the commercial substance of the transactions of the entity.
Board of directors = The person who is responsible for overviewing the strategic direction of the entity and obligations related to the accountability of the entity. This includes overviewing the financial reporting process.
Management – The persons with executive responsibility for the conduct of the companies operations. In some cases, all of those charged with governance are involved in managing the company, Example, a small business (sole trader) where a single owner manages the entity and no one else has a governance role
Engagement partner – The partner in the firm who is responsible for the audit engagement and its performance (who is authorized to sign the audit report), and for the auditor’s report that is issued on behalf of the firm and who has the authority from a professional, legal or regulatory body.
Professional judgment – The application of audit training, experience and knowledge, within the context provided by the client, accounting and principles of ethical standards, in making decisions on the base of information about the courses of action that are appropriate in the circumstances of the audit engagement.
Professional skepticism – An attitude that includes a questioning mind, being alert to conditions which can indicate possible misstatement due to error or fraud, and a critical assessment of audit evidence. Professional skepticism includes being alert to, for example:
• Audit evidence that conflicts with other audit evidence obtained by the auditor.
• The questionable information brings the reliability of documents and responses to inquiries to be used as audit evidence.
• Conditions that may indicate possible fraud.
• Circumstances that suggest the need for audit procedures required by the ISAs.