ACCA AA Syllabus 2021

ACCA AA Audit and Assurance

ACCA Audit and Assurance (AA)

ACCA AA Syllabus 2021

F8 AA syllabus

Topic-wise Notes


What is Audit?

First of all the basic means of Audit is investigations.

Another way in accounts, this word being used Audit for the examination of Financial Statements prepared by entities annually.

  • Balance sheet
  • Statement of profit and loss
  • Income statement
  • Statement of changes in equity
  • Statement of cash flow

Likewise, ACCA AA (F8) is a theoretical paper Probably consists of 90% theory and 10% calculations.

In theory, examiner test the concepts of students by giving a situation, and students need the resolve that situation in different ways in different questions, like Analytical procedures, Test of controls, internal controls

Also in other parts of the parts consist of calculations, Calculations of this part probably from IAS-IFRS, like if examiner explains the situation by referring IFRS-16 then you should be attentive there is something wrong in the calculation of IFRS 16 which examiner wants you to correct this problem,

Furthermore, like assets are recorded correctly, Disposals are calculated in the right way, Depreciation treatments accounting according to the IFRS 16,

Similarly with other accounting standers.

The main motive of ACCA AA paper

Is to develop basic understanding and knowledge of the audit process to give an assurance engagement to a Clint by following the Professional Regulatory Framework

However, to pass AA you need to:

  • Concepts regarding the audit and assurance
  • what is procedures of an audit, how an auditor perform his audit assignments
  • Understand and evaluation of internal controls to assess the risk factors

Study Plan

Material for topic preparation: Any approved learning provider content along with the revision notes.

Material for Question practice: Past exams (Any Revision Kit- The answers on the ACCA website do not reflect the changes in the accounting and auditing standards). Please use the latest Kit (for Sept 2017 exam session) for answers.

Key preparatory recommendations:
-Attempt each question first yourself
-THEN read the answers
-Read the answers constructively- annotate and underline the key points that you missed, commonly used terminology, etc.

ACCA AA Practice Questions Topic Wise

TopicQuestions
Assurance & RegulationJune 2015-Q5c
Dec 12- Q2a,c
June 12- Q1c
Accepting audit engagementsSept/Dec Hybrid 2015-Q2 a,b
Dec 2013-Q4a,b
June 11 Q2b
Audit planningSept/Dec Hybrid 2015-Q2c
Sept/Dec Hybrid 2015-Q4
June 2015-Q5b
Audit planningJune 2014-Q3a
Dec 2013-Q1a,b,c
June 2013-Q3 ( Ratios)
Audit planningDec 2012-Q3a,b
Dec 2010-Q3 ( Ratios)
ICS-SalesDec 2014-Q5a
Dec 2013-Q3
June 11- Q1a,c
ICS-purchasesJune 2015-Q4
June 2013-Q1b,c
Dec 10- Q1a,b, Q4b
ICS-payrollSept/Dec Hybrid 2015-Q5 a,b
June 2014-Q1a,b
Dec 2011- Q1a
Other IC topicsJune 10- Q3b
June 2015-Q2
Dec 09- Q3b
June 2012- Q1a
Evidence and proceduresJune 12- Q4a
June 11- Q3a
Substantive-Sales and trade receivablesJune 2015-Q6a and Q6biii
Dec 2014-Q5b
Audit procedures-InventorySept/Dec Hybrid 2015-Q6a, bi
Dec 2014-Q6bii
June 2014-Q3b
Dec 2012-Q1a,b
June 2012-Q4a
Substantive-Property, Plant & Equipment
And
Equity
Dec 2014-Q6bi
June 2013-Q4a
June 2012-Q1b,c
Substantive-purchases and trade payable sJune 2015-Q6bi
PayrollSept/Dec Hybrid 2015-Q5c
Dec 2014-Q1
June 2014-Q1c,d
Intangible assetsSept/Dec Hybrid 2015-Q6bii
BankJune 2015-Q6bii
June 2013-Q1d
RemunerationJune 2014-Q3c
Relying on work of othersDec 2014-Q6a
Substantive practiceDec 2013-Q1d
Dec 2012-Q4b
June 2012-Q4b
Fraud, Laws & regulationsJune 2015-Q5a
Dec 12- Q2b
June 12- Q3a
Audit documentationJune 12- Q4c
June 11- Q2a
CAATsDec 10- Q2c
SamplingDec 2012-Q1c
June 12- Q2b
Going concern reviewSept/Dec Hybrid 2015-Q3
June 2014-Q5a,b,c
June 2012-Q5a,b,c
Subsequent events review, overall reviewDec 2011-Q5a, bi, and bii
Dec 2008-Q5
June 2013-Q1a
Dec 2010-Q5a,b
Audit opinion & reportSept/Dec Hybrid 2015-Q6c
June 2015-Q3
Dec 2014-Q4
Dec 2014-Q6c
June 2014-Q5d
Audit opinion & reportJune 2013-Q5c
Dec 2012-Q5
June 2012-Q5d
Dec 2011-Q5biii
June 2011-Q5c
EthicsSept/Dec Hybrid 2015-Q1
June 2015-Q1
June 2014-Q3d
Dec 2013-Q4c
June 2012-Q3b,c
Corporate governanceDec 2014-Q3
Internal auditJune 2014-Q4
June 2013-Q4b,c,d
June 2013-Q5a,b
Dec 2012-Q3c
June 2012-Q1d,e
June 2012-Q3d
Full exam paper under exam conditions ( time managed)March/June 2016
Sept 2016
Dec 2016
March/June 2017
ACCA Audit and Assurance Topic-wise questions for practice, To help out students we are providing you this list, so when students learn one topic they can practice its relevant question to get a full grip on that topic

How to Pass ACCA AA

AA Video Lectures

Books & Revision Kits

AA Pass Rate

Dec 2017Jun 2018Dec 2018Jun 2018Dec 2019
40%40%38%39%38%

Find Us on Facebook

Previously Known as F8

What is Materiality?

What is Materiality

Definition: ‘Mistakes, including omissions, are supposed to be material if they, alone or on the whole, could reasonably be expected to affect the economic decisions of users taken on the basis of the financial statements.

In assessing the level of materiality there are a number of sections that should be examined.

Firstly the auditor must suppose both the amount ‘quantity’ and nature ‘quality’ of any misstatements or a mixture of both.

The quantity of the misstatement refers to the comparable size of it and the quality refers to an amount that might be low in value but due to its influence could affect the user’s decision, for example, directors’ activities.

In assessing material amount the auditor must consider that a number of errors each with a low value may be material when aggregated amount to a material misstatement.

The assessment of what is material is finally a matter of the auditor’s professional capacity, and it is influenced by the auditor’s understanding of the financial information needs of users of the financial statements and the detected level of risk;

The higher risk then takes a lower level of overall materiality.

Material by the amount for F/S as a whole

  • 1% of revenue
  • 2% of total assets
  • 10% of PBT

Material by nature

  • Related party transactions
  • Bank balances
  • Fraud/ Unlawful transactions (e.g. illegal payments)
  • Violation of regulatory requirements
  • Failure to meet requirements of debt-covenants
  • Key Performance Indicators of the company (e.g. converting loss into profit)
  • Incorrect selection or application of an accounting policy that has an immaterial effect on the current period but is likely to have a material effect on future periods

Performance Materiality

Performance materiality is usually set at a level lower than overall materiality. It is used for testing each transaction, account balances, and disclosures. The purpose of performance materiality is to decrease the risk that the total of mistakes in balances, transactions, and disclosures does not in total exceed overall materiality.

Planning Materiality Vs Performance Materiality

Planning MaterialityPerformance Materiality
1. Have Benchmark1.No Benchmark (Auditors assessment)
2. One single amount for the entire Financial Statement2. Different amounts for different ledgers/accounts.
3. Use to judge important account balance and class of transaction3. Individual balance in an individual 
account

Read More: AUDIT RISK and Auditor Response

Facebook

Threats to Auditor Independence

threats for auditor

International Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants ACCA AA & AAA

Conceptual Framework

Conceptual Framework
Conceptual Framework

What is Auditor Independence?

Auditors are expected to provide an unbiased opinion on the work that they have performed. An auditor who has a lack of independence or has threats to auditor independence, his audit report useless to those who rely on it.

For example, consider yourself a potential shareholder in XYZ Company. If you know that the auditor for XYZ Company keeps a personal relationship with the CEO of the company, would you trust that the audited work is a fair representation of the company’s financial standing? How can you be certain that the auditor and CEO did not influence issues a favorable audit report? so must ensure that Auditor no have Threats to Auditor Independence

Once you have identified a threat from the question scenario, you will need to name the threat, explain WHY it is a threat to the auditor and tell the safeguard for that threat.

Here are a few techniques that can be avoided Threats to Auditor Independence,

Threats to Auditor Independence?

In Audit, there are five threats that hurt the independence of the auditor. Before the start of an audit engagement, it is crucial that each member of the audit team independence. If an auditor is exposed to a certain threat, He/she should either develop safeguards to reduce the threat to an acceptable level or resign from audit engagement. here we are going to discuss threats to auditor independence and possible remedies

QCR: Quality Control Review ( independent partner review)- Having a professional accountant who was not involved with the non-assurance service review the non-assurance work performed

Chinese walls: The use of separate engagement teams, with different engagement partners and team members

Public interest entities are:

  • (a) All listed entities; and
  • (b) Any entity:
    • Defined by regulation or law-making as a public interest entity
    • OR
    • For which the audit is required by law and regulation to be conducted in compliance with the same independence requirements that apply to the audit of listed entities. Such regulation may be circulated by any relevant regulator, including an audit regulator
threats for auditor

1. Self interest threat and safeguards

The threat that a financial or other interest will inappropriately influence the auditor’s judgment or behavior.
Threat Safeguard
Direct financial interestA member of the assurance team or the firm having a direct financial interest in the assurance client.Remove the individual from the audit team the self-interest threat created would be so significant that no safeguards could reduce the threat to an acceptable level.
Gifts and hospitalityNature, value and intent of offer to be considered Not allowed unless insignificant ( politely decline)
Fee dependenceA firm having fee dependence on total fees from a client.Listed clients: If gross recurring fee from one client greater than 15% of the firm’s revenue for two consecutive years,– Tell client’s BOD– Independent QCR or external QCR before
OR
After issuing 2nd year’s opinion Other clients:– Reducing the dependency on the client;–
External quality control reviews OR Consulting a third party, such as a professional regulatory body (E.g ACCA, ICAEW) or a professional accountant on key audit judgments.
Recent Service with an Audit ClientIf a member of the audit team has recently served an employee of the audit clientRemove from the team if worked at the client in the year being audited at a position to exact significant influence over the subject matter.
Close business relationshipA member of the assurance team (or the firm) having a significant-close business relationship – Commercial relationship,
Common financial interest Examples: a joint venture with the client or a controlling owner/ director, formal marketing of each other’s product, combine the services of the firm with those being offered by the client and market the package.
If material, not allowed (The threat created would be so significant that no safeguards could reduce the threat to an acceptable level.
Contingency feeFirm going to enter into a contingency fee arrangement relating to an assurance engagementPolitely decline the proposed contingent fee arrangement, Inform the client that the fees will be based on the level of work required to obtain sufficient and appropriate audit evidence.
Overdue feeMight be regarded as being equivalent to a loan to the client if fees due from a client(Audit Client) remain unpaid for a long time, especially if a significant part is not paid before the issue of the audit report for the following financial yearDiscuss with TCWG the reasons why the payments have not been made. Should agree with a revised payment method which will result in the fees being settled before much more work is performed for the current year audit
Loans and guaranteeIf not under normal lending conditions, No safeguard acceptable under normal lending conditions- review by network firm.
Serving as a Director or Officer of an Audit ClientNot allowed. (Particular reference made by the code to the role of the Company Secretary. If allowed under local laws or professional rules, the duties and activities shall be limited to those of a routine and nature of administrative, such as preparing minutes and maintaining statutory returns)
Recruitment services (especially hiring of senior management)Listed clients: Not allowed for directors or senior positions related to Financial Statements preparation. Otherwise,
The final decision should be by the client and DO NOT negotiate on the client’s behalf firm can undertake roles such as reviewing a shortlist of other candidates. However, they must ensure that they are not interfering to undertake management decisions and so must not make the final decision on who is appointed
Employment negotiations with the audit client.A member of the audit team entering into employment negotiations with the audit client.Remove the individual from the audit team– A review of any significant judgments made by that individual while on the team
Compensation and Evaluation Policieswhen a member of the audit team is evaluated on or compensated for selling non-assurance services to that clientAudit partner should not be evaluated on or compensated based on that partner’s success in selling non-assurance engagement to the partner’s audit client

2. Self Review threat and safeguards

The threat that an auditor will not appropriately evaluate the results of a previous judgment made or service performed by himself.
Threat Safeguards
Self-ReviewThe threat that the auditor will not appropriately evaluate the results of a previous judgment made/or service performed by himProvision of other services to an audit client (Note: other threats due to this are self-interest because of the fee element and advocacy

Safeguard for Listed Clients: Most non-assurance services related to financial reporting are not allowed.
Other clients: Segregation of duties, Chinese walls, QCR
Temporary staff assignmentsThe lending of staff by a firm to an audit clientShould ideally not be made a part of the audit team. Generally acceptable if no management responsibility is taken up and the audit client shall be responsible for directing and supervising the activities of the loaned staff
Recent Service with an Audit Clienta member of the audit team has recently served as an employee of the audit client- The threat is that the member of the audit team has to evaluate elements of the financial statements for which he had prepared the accounting records while with the clientRemove from the team if worked at the client in the year being audited at a position to exert significant influence over the subject matter

3. Familiarity Threat and safeguards

The threat that due to a long or close relationship with a client or employer,
Threat Safeguard
Long AssociationLong Association of Senior Personnel with an Audit ClientListed clients: 7 years plus 1 year of flexibility than a gap of two years for audit partner– In these 2 years gap period, cannot participate in the audit Or provide quality control for the engagement, Or consult with the engagement team or the client regarding technical or industry-specific issues

Other clients: Rotate members, & QCR
Family and Personal RelationshipsRemove from the team if the relationship is with a senior person at the client with influence over the financial statements.
Employment with an Audit ClientThe director or a senior member of the audit client has been a member of the audit team or partner of the firm in the pastListed client: for partners, ok if twelve months have passed since the individual was Partner.

Other safeguards- Modifying the audit plan;-any work already undertaken by that individual should be independent reviewed.-Assigning individuals to the audit team who have enough experience in relation to the individual who has joined the client

4. Advocacy Threat and safeguards

The threat that an auditor will promote a client’s or employer’s position to the point that the auditor objectivity is compromised.
Threat Safeguard
Legal servicesLegal services To audit client ( For example contract support, litigation, mergers, and acquisition legal advice, and support to clients’ internal legal departments)If they relate to resolving a dispute or litigation when the amounts involved are material to the Financial Statements: Not allowed
Promote client/sharesThe auditor asked to promote client/shares in a client or asked to accompany the client to a meeting with the bankNot allowed (Politely decline)

5. Intimidation Threat and safeguards

The threat that an auditor will be deterred from acting objectively because of actual or perceived pressures, including attempts to exercise undue influence over the auditor.
Threat Safeguard
Threat of dismissalThreat of dismissal or replacement of auditor/or his close family member over a
disagreement about the application of an accounting principle.
Tell client’s TCWG– ensure that all audit engagements are conducted in accordance with
International Standards on Auditing– Ensure you gather sufficient appropriate evidence

*A dominant personality at the client attempting to influence the decision-making process, for example, the application of an accounting principle.
*A firm being pressured to reduce inappropriately the extent of work performed in order to reduce fees.
*An auditor feeling pressured to agree with the judgment of a client employee because the employee has more expertise on the matter in question.
Actual or Threatened Litigation(For example regarding a previous audit report)- When the firm and the client’s management are placed in adversarial positions by actual or threatened legally, affecting management’s willingness to make complete disclosuresQCR– If a team member involved, remove from the – Withdraw from the cement if very significant
Fee dependenceFee dependence, close personal relationships, business relationships also cause intimidation
threats.
The safeguards for each will be the same as discussed earlier.

6. Conflict of Interest Threat and safeguards

Threat Safeguard
Firm competes with client or firm has a joint venture with a competitor of a client or the firm has competitors as clientsMembers should place their clients’ interests before their own and should not accept or continue engagements which threaten to give rise to conflicts of interest between the firm and the client. Any advice given should be in the best interests of the company.
A conflict of interest arises where an auditor acts for both a client company and for a competitor company of the client. Where the acceptance of an audit engagement would, despite safeguards, materially prejudice the interests of any clients, the appointment should not be accepted, or one of the appointments should be discontinued.
Where the acceptance of engagement would, despite safeguards, materially prejudice the interests of any clients, the appointment should not be accepted, or one of the appointments should be discontinued.
Managing conflicts of interest

1. Full disclosure is important – both companies should be fully aware that the firm is acting for the other party.
2. Regular review of the situation by an independent senior partner
3. Use of different partners and teams of staff for different engagements
4. Internal procedures within the firm
-Procedures to stop access to information, for example, strict physical separation of both teams, private and secure data filing.
-Clear guidelines for members of each assurance engagement team on issues of security and confidentiality. These guidelines must be included within the audit engagement letters.
-Potentially the use of confidentiality agreements signed by employees and partners of the firm
5- Advising at least one or all clients to seek additional advice

ACCA Past Papers  Attempt These past papers questions to check your understanding:

  • Sept/Dec Hybrid 2015-Q1
  • June 2015-Q1
  • June 2014-Q3d
  • Dec 2013-Q4c
  • June 2012-Q3b,c

This is the detailed explanation on Threats to Threats to Auditor Independence, and how its work, don’t forget to give us feedback by commenting below

Read More: How to Pass ACCA P7 AAA

Find Us on Facebook

Fundamental principles of ethics

Fundamental principles of ethics

Here are Fundamental principles of ethics described by ACCA to be followed by all ACCA members, Students must be memorized all of them, this can be tested straightforward and in MCQ’s in CBE.

AA & AAA

5 Fundamental principles of ethics described by ACCA

Integrity

The auditor should be straight forward & honest in all professional and business relationships. Auditors will be associated with communications, returns or other information and reports where they believe that the information contains materially false or misleading statements.


Objectivity

Members should not allow bias, conflicts of undue or interest influence of others to override professional or business judgments.


Read moreFundamental principles of ethics

Appointment Removal & Role Of An Auditor

Appointment Removal & Role Of An Auditor

Appointment Removal & Role Of An Auditor. an auditor is a compulsory requirement for all companies to operate in the majority all over the world. So here are a few rules…

The Auditor’s duties 

Fundamental duties are to: 

– An opinion that shows whether the financial statements give a true and fair view and are prepared in accordance with the applicable reporting framework 

– issue an audit report. 

Duty to check and ensure: Adequate accounting records, Compliance with legislation, Truth and fairness, Adequacy of financial statements disclosures 

The Auditor’s Right

1. Right of access at all times to the company’s books, accounts, and vouchers.

2. The right to require from the staff of the company such information or explanations as they think necessary for the performance of their duties as auditors.

3. Right to receive all communications relating to written resolutions.

4. Right to receive all notices of, and other communications relating to, any general meeting which a member of the company is entitled to receive.

5. Right to attend any general meeting of the company.

6. Right to be heard at any general meeting in which an auditor attends on any part of the business of the meeting which concerns them as an auditor.

Appointment of auditors

Only a member of a recognized supervisory body is eligible to be appointed as an auditor. The person to be appointed as the auditor is required to hold a professional accountancy qualification.

1. Appointed by shareholders

2. The appointment of the auditor runs from the end of the Annual General Meeting (AGM) until the end of the next AGM.

3. On appointment, need to ask ‘clearance’ from the outgoing auditor

For entities in which a share is owned by the state, the auditor is appointed by the Secretary of State or Ministry of Finance (or a person authorized by the Ministry of Finance)

Removal of Auditors

1. RESIGNATION: Sometimes it is necessary for the auditors to resign. If an auditor resigns, they should do so in writing and they may wish to speak to the shareholders to explain their reasons

2. FORCED REMOVALSometimes, the Board of Directors or some shareholders may wish to remove the auditors. A General Meeting must be called so that the shareholders can vote on the proposal of a new auditor (via an ordinary resolution).

3. AUDITORS DO NOT WISH TO SEEK REAPPOINTMENT: Sometimes the auditors finish the annual audit and decide they do not wish to audit the company in future years. As such, when the board asks them to accept nomination for the following year, the auditors should politely decline and issue a Statement of Circumstances.

Key points

1. Directors cannot remove the auditors themselves.

2. Auditors Can be removed by a simple majority at a general meeting.

3. The auditors should be given notice of such a meeting

4. They are allowed to speak at the general meeting

5. Deposit at the company’s registered office a statement of the circumstances connected with the removal/resignation or a statement that there are no such circumstances. They can request an Extraordinary General Meeting (EGM) of the company to explain the circumstances of the resignation.

Audit exemption for small companies

However, the main reasons for exempting small companies are:

– for owner-managed companies, those receiving the audit report are those running the company (and hence preparing the accounts!)

– the advice/value which accountants can add to a small company is more likely to concern other services, such as accounting and tax, rather than audit and which may also give rise to a conflict of interest under the ethics rules

– the impact of misstatements in the accounts of small companies is unlikely to be material to the wider economy

– it may also not be cost beneficial for the small entities.

Read More: True & Fair Presentation

Facebook

Types of Assurance Engagement

Types of Assurance Engagement

What is assurance & Types of Assurance Engagement

What is Assurance Engagement:

Assurance Engagement Definition: Any assignment/engagement which has five elements(Below) becomes an assurance engagement

Five Elements of an Assurance Engagement

A three-party relationship, involving: the practitioner, a responsible party and intended users.
Appropriate subject matter.
Suitable criteria.
Sufficient, appropriate evidence to support the conclusion.
A conclusion contained within a written report.
  1. An assurance engagement will require a three-party relationship comprising:
    • a) The intended user who is the person who requires the assurance report (Share Holders, Lenders, etc, etc)
    • b) The responsible party, which is the organization responsible for preparing the subject matter to be reviewed (Board of Directors)
    • c) The practitioner who is the professional who will review the subject matter and provide assurance. (i.e. an accountant)
  2. The second element is required for an assurance engagement is a suitable subject matter. The subject matter is the data that the responsible party has prepared and which requires verification (e.g Financial statements)
  3. The subject matter is then evaluated or assessed against suitable criteria in order for it to be assessed and an opinion provided (e.g IAS & IFRS)
  4. The practitioner must ensure that they have gathered sufficient appropriate audit evidence in order to give the required level of assurance engagement.
  5. In the last one, an assurance report provides the opinion which is given by the practitioner to the intended user(ShareHolders)

Types of assurance Engagement

Difference between audit and assurance OR Assurance meaning in accounting OR Types of assurance services

Types of Assurance assignments 

Types of assurance assignments
Types of assurance assignments
Types of Assurance Engagement

Reasonable Assurance

An Assurance engagement in which the Practioner(Auditor) reduces engagement risk to an
acceptably lower level in the circumstances of the engagement as the basis for the practitioner’s conclusion.
Example: External Audit
High level of assurance but NOT absolute or 100%
A high level of assurance but not the absolute level of assurance is provided, this is known as reasonable assurance.
More testing (Analytical procedures, a test of controls and substantive testing) Going concern review also carried out
Positive conclusion- Wording:
‘in our opinion, the financial statements give (or do not give) a true and fair view of the state of the company’s affairs’.

Limited Assurance

An assurance engagement in which the practitioner(Auditor) reduces engagement risk to an acceptable level in the circumstances of the engagement but where that risk is greater than for a reasonable assurance engagement
Example: Review of financial statements
Moderate level of assurance
The practitioner gathers sufficient appropriate audit evidence to be satisfied that the subject matter is credible, in this case, negative assurance is given whereby the practitioner confirms
that nothing has come to auditor's attention which indicates that the subject matter contains
material misstatements in financial statements
Lesser testing-focus on obvious errors only
(Analytical testing and Enquiry)
Going concern review will not be performed
The procedures undertaken are not nearly as comprehensive in assurance engagement,
with procedures such as analytical review and inquiry used extensively. Also, the practitioner does not need to comply with ISAs And IFRSs as these only relate to external audits.
Negative conclusion-Wording:
“Nothing has come to light to suggest errors or problems exist’'
However, the assurance is given in the absence of any indication to the contrary.
Review engagements are often take up as an alternative to an audit and involve a
practitioner reviewing financial data, such as six-monthly figures.
This would involve the
the practitioner takes up procedures to state whether anything has come to their attention which is the reason the practitioner to believe that the financial data is not in accordance with the financial reporting framework.

Assignments were no Assurance is given

Agreed-upon procedures: A report on factual findings is given but assurance will not be given. Users must judge for themselves and draw their own conclusions
Compilation engagement: Users of the compiled information gain benefit from the accountant’s involvement but no assurance is expressed. It is used to collect, classify, and summarise financial information. It means to present data in a manageable and understandable form

See also: Ratio Analysis

Facebook

True and Fair presentation

True and Fair presentation

True and Fair presentation Definition

Financial statements are produced by the Board of directors which give a true and fair view of the entity’s results. The auditor in reviewing these financial statements gives an opinion on the truth and fairness of them. Although there is no definition in the International Standards on Auditing of true and fair it is generally considered the meaning of

True and Fair presentation as following

True – Information is based on facts and conforms with reality in that there are no factual errors. In addition, it is assumed that to be true it must comply with accounting standards and any relevant legislation. True includes data that is correctly transferred from accounting records to the financial statements.

Fair – Information is impartial, clear and unbiased, and representing the commercial substance of the transactions of the entity.

Board of directors = The person who is responsible for overviewing the strategic direction of the entity and obligations related to the accountability of the entity. This includes overviewing the financial reporting process.

Management – The persons with executive responsibility for the conduct of the companies operations. In some cases, all of those charged with governance are involved in managing the company, Example, a small business (sole trader) where a single owner manages the entity and no one else has a governance role

Engagement partner – The partner in the firm who is responsible for the audit engagement and its performance (who is authorized to sign the audit report), and for the auditor’s report that is issued on behalf of the firm and who has the authority from a professional, legal or regulatory body.

Professional judgment – The application of audit training, experience and knowledge, within the context provided by the client, accounting and principles of ethical standards, in making decisions on the base of information about the courses of action that are appropriate in the circumstances of the audit engagement.

Professional skepticism – An attitude that includes a questioning mind, being alert to conditions which can indicate possible misstatement due to error or fraud, and a critical assessment of audit evidence. Professional skepticism includes being alert to, for example:

• Audit evidence that conflicts with other audit evidence obtained by the auditor.

• The questionable information brings the reliability of documents and responses to inquiries to be used as audit evidence.

• Conditions that may indicate possible fraud.

• Circumstances that suggest the need for audit procedures required by the ISAs.

Read More:

What is Audit and Inherent Limitation of Audit

what is Audit? Inherent Limitation of Audit

What is Audit and Inherent Limitation of Audit

Audit: The practitioner examines the subject matter made available by the responsible party, matches it to the suitable criteria using evidence and reports to the intended users. (Audit also have inherent limitation) see below.

OR

An audit is an Independent Examination of Financial Statements.

What is Audit
What is Audit

Background:

Company is an artificial legal personality which owns by the shareholders, And Run by Board of Directors, The real Owners of the company are shareholders, Shareholders delegate their authority to the directors, So they can run the company on the behalf of shareholders.

Here Shareholders are the Principle owners and BOD are the agents. This also called the agency relationship. The Directors are the caretaker of Shareholder’s investment, Funds, Assets Everything in Company.

Now Directors Duty to Run the Company in the Best interest of shareholders, Maximising the shareholders wealth, have to establish the controls, Establishing the accounting system, Maintaining the accounting Record, Preparation of Financial Statements, Publishing Financial Statements, Conducting AGMs (Annual general meetings) etc etc For the sake of their Principle Owners (Shareholders).

In the end BOD’s Publish Financial Statement. These Financial statements actually announcing the performance Or work done by directors,

Now think Directors are performing the task all over the year and now announcing their results, Now shareholders how can relay on these Financial statements, Made by the Directors about their performance,

Now shareholders want an INDEPENDENT competent person, who is (Unbiased, Neutrality, qualified, Impartial). So they can give an Independent Opinion On FINANCIAL STATEMENTS. This called Audit (Audit is Independent Examination of Financial Statement.)

Highlight: Audit is not a guarantee, Audit is Independent Examination of Financial Statement And at the end, Auditor gives Independent Opinion on Financial Statements Weathers its Presents TRUE and FAIR view or not in all material aspects.

Inherent Limitation of Audit

OR

Why Auditor cannot give an absolute opinion

1. Sampling –For auditors, it is not practical to test 100% of transactions and so they have to apply the sampling method in selecting balances/transactions to test. Therefore, there can be an error in an item not selected for testing by the auditor.

2. Subjectivity – financial statements include judgmental and subjective areas and therefore the auditor is required to use their judgment in assessing whether the financial statements are true and fair.

3. Inherent limitations of internal control systems – an internal control system is operated by people and hence is liable to human error. As well, there is the possibility of controls override by management and of collusion and fraud. It is not possible to remove all of these inherent limitations and as the auditor relies on the internal control systems, this can reduce the usefulness of the audit.

4. Evidence is not conclusive But persuasive: therefore opinion depends on audit evidence collected by Auditors; however, this evidence can identify possible issues affecting the audit opinion, evidence involves estimates and judgments and hence does not give an absolute conclusion.

5. Even if everything reported on was examined and found to be satisfactory, there may be other items which should have been included– the completeness problem.

6. Auditors plan their work to detect material errors and frauds only – so small frauds (or large frauds split into many small amounts) may go unnoticed.

an external audit has a number of other issues which reduce its usefulness

1. Audit report format – the format of the opinion is determined by International Standards on Auditing. However, the terminology used is not usually understandable by non-accountants. This means that users of Financial Statements may not actually understand the audit opinion given.

2. Historic information – the audit report is often issued sometime after the year-end, and so the financial information can be quite different from the current position. In the current circumstance marketplace where companies’ financial positions can change quite quickly, the audit opinion may no longer be relevant as it is outdated.

3. Auditors need to understand their clients in great depth if they are to understand how fraud could be carried out and hidden. However, auditors cannot become too close to their clients or their independence will be called into question.

4. Where auditors spot errors or fraud, their primary legal responsibility is to report this to management. Any external reporting is hampered by rules on confidentiality.

See Also: Analytical Procedures

Audit and Assurance Video Lectures

Facebook

Ratio Analysis

Ratio Analysis

Financial Ratio Analysis

Ratio Analysis Plays a key Roll to determine the business circumstance, here are few Ratios are given below.

In the examination, you will be asked to calculate and interpret the ratios used in analytical procedures at the audit planning stage and when collecting audit evidence. Ratios and comparisons can be used to identify where the accounts might be wrong or right, and where additional auditing effort should be the need to spent. 

Read moreRatio Analysis

error: